Wednesday, March 11, 2020
consumer health essays Is Consumer Health and Safety in Jeopardy With the implementation of Self-Prescription GUS 72-001: Urban Affairs-Consumers In the Marketplace: Your Legal Rights The expeditious augmentation of consumer product transactions taking place on the Internet have developed new risk for the public's health and safety, especially with the rise of online self-prescription drug sites. Online Pharmacies have been created to benefit the consumer but pose many risks for credulous purchasers, increased health fraud, and unique challenges to regulators, law enforcement, and policymakers. With these latest technological advancements, former regulations utilized by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concerning the distribution of prescription and over the counter drugs have to some extent become obsolete. This has required that the FDA along with the combined efforts of other organizations such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), create new regulations to protect consumers. The evolution of online prescription Internet sites has brought several advantages to consumers, allowing individuals to attain ever-increasing amounts of knowledge to improve their understanding of health issues and treatment options. "Last year alone more than 22 million Americans used the Internet to find medical information. According to Investor's Business Daily, 43% of web surfers access health care data online each year. Health concerns are the sixth most common reason people use the Internet, and according to the market research firm, Cyber Dialogue Inc., this number is growing 70 percent a year." The leading attractions to purchasing consumer products online are speed, privacy, ease of choosing and ordering products, and reduction in possible prescription errors with the use of computer technology to transmit prescriptions from doctors to pharmacies. Other benefits include: lower prices through increased competition among licensed sellers; great...
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Supermarket Prices - Essay Example There are a lot of assumptions about the grocery market in Australia. One of the assumptions is that markets like the Coles and Woolworths have large economies of scale and hence they have cheaper products as compared to other supermarkets. It is also argued that different states have different market sizes, and costs resulting in different prices across the states. It is also assumed that the prices differ according to the location of the store. Further, managers at ALDI claims that they have different prices in the three states. Answer 1 Hypothesis: The null hypothesis is one in which we assume that the difference between the sample means is because of chance. The alternate hypothesis supposes that the samples are affected by some non-random clause (Prince, 2000). The Null hypothesis will be the one which assumes that the average price of all the stores is same. The alternate hypothesis will assume that there is significant difference between the average prices of the 4 supermarkets. Null Hypothesis: H0: Ã µ1 = Ã µ2 = Ã µ3 = Ã µ4 Alternate Hypothesis: H1: Ã µ1 Ã¢â° Ã µ2 Ã¢â° Ã µ3 Ã¢â° Ã µ4 Where, Ã µ1 is the average price at Coles/BI-LO Ã µ2 is the average price at Woolworths/Safeway Ã µ3 is the average price at independent stores Ã µ4 is the average price at ALDI Appropriate Test Since, we are required to compare the means of 4 samples; the appropriate test that shall be performed is the one-way ANOVA (Karris, 2003).
Friday, February 7, 2020
Any to pic - Essay Example The cases of failure among health care institutions that have been publicized, though a minority, their overwhelming blow cannot be condoned. These failures have been associated with inadequate compassion, inadequate respect, and lack of dignity. The media has gone further to highlight the consequences of such shortcomings. The most adverse effect is that such failure results to death of many individuals, who would, otherwise have been saved. The interest of some health care organizations has masked the avoidable harm that patients experience across various parts of the world (Reid, 2012). It is essential to note that for a positive movement to be made, the most essential task is shifting the mindset of all health care professionals at all levels. For instance, it is essential that normalizing the nonstandard should be stopped as well as acceptance of the unacceptable. Moreover, there should be a collective as well as individual practice and promotion of professional cores and values that increase the safety of patients and property ownership. Nevertheless, improvements should be made in surgeries, with increases in effectiveness and commitment among the professionals. Health care professionals touch peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives at times of primary human need, when compassion and care are what they need most. It is, therefore, significantly essential that individuals, boards, and teams explore what compassion, dignity, respect, and care signify and their manner of demonstration (Reid, 2012). Building united mental representations of care requires nurses to express professional values and describe their expectations. As much as there has been reported failures and poor performance in health care institutions, it is, however, essential that their efforts be recognized. It is arguable that with the absence of nurse leaders to engage others in work, a health environment is unachievable. Professionals have argued that it is only qualified nurses who can determine whether
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Boston Strangler killings Essay Between 1962 and 1964, thirteen women were sexually assaulted and murdered in the city of Boston. This series of murders was called the Boston Strangler murders. Though most of the victims were older women, a few were in their early twenties, and one young woman was in her late teens. All of the victims were strangled, usually with a personal item the woman owned, such as tights or stockings. The Boston Strangler would gain access to his victims by posing as an official needing to perform a service in the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s homes. In 1964, Albert de Salvo confessed to having committed the crimes (Chitolie, 1997). Because the Boston Strangler killings involved a repetitive pattern, which always involved specific behaviors, social learning theory is most useful in explaining this case. According to social learning theory, an individual learns by observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others (Kearsley, 2007). People learn societal norms and appropriate, healthy behaviors by modeling others. After one becomes aware of a behavior by observing it, he will usually apply the behavior in future situations, reflecting upon past outcomes that occurred when the behavior was originally observed. The Boston Strangler observed the reactions of his earlier victims and based his approach to future murders on the outcomes of his prior crimes. For example, he knew that by dressing as a serviceman, de SalvoÃ¢â¬â¢s victims would respond by trusting de Salvo and allowing him to enter their houses. Consequently, de Salvo used this tactic repeatedly. A more general example of how learned behaviors may influence future practices is evident in the treatment of animals. Many children go through a stage in which they innocently harm insects or small animals (i. e. by trapping them and keeping them in jars, etc. ). In most cases, a parent or other adult intervenes, and the child learns to respect animals. As a result, the child does not have a desire to cause the animal pain. There are some cases, however, in which the child never learns empathy for animals and the pattern of torture intensifies. Based on prior experiences (i. e. causing pain in animals as a form of enjoyment, and not having an adult stop the behavior), a child may continue the undesirable practice. Sometimes, the childÃ¢â¬â¢s violent tendencies toward living things may escalate so much that it is later transferred to human beings when the child becomes an adult. As a child, Albert de Salvo trapped cats and dogs and shot them with arrows. It may be argued that de Salvo never learned appropriate behavior in dealing with living things, and as a result, de SalvoÃ¢â¬â¢s practice of trapping animals, rendering them helpless, and killing them progressed to trapping and torturing the women he murdered during his adulthood. The childhood practice of continued animal cruelty can be observed among a number of other infamous serial killers as well (Finch, 1992). In the context of social learning theory, the Boston StranglerÃ¢â¬â¢s killings perhaps occurred because the individual who committed these crimes lacked proper role models to teach him the rules and norms of society. It appears that this individual was never effectively discouraged from harming living organisms, and it is even possible that he may have witnessed violent acts (perhaps the violent acts of men against women) during his early years of development. Nevertheless, when examining the killings, from the general events that took place to the minor details, there appears to be an obvious pattern of repetitive learned violent behavior. Bibliography Chitolie, Raymond. Serial KillersÃ¢â¬âCase Files [The Boston Strangler]. 1997. Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://hosted. ray. easynet. co. uk/serial_killers/boston. html Finch, Patty A. Abuse. 1992. Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://www. vospca. org/archive/abuse. html Kearsley, Gregg. Theories. 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2007, from http://tip. psychology. org/bandura. html
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
The Change in Gilgamesh Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ever since the beginning of time, man has learned to mature by trials and tribulations. In the beginning of The Epic of Gilgamesh, the protagonist Gilgamesh appears to be an arrogant person who only cares about himself. He abuses all his powers and takes advantage of people with his physical abilities. Basically in the beginning he thinks that no one on earth is better than him. However, just like all epic poems, the protagonist encounters many challenges that make him a better person. So as the story progresses Gilgamesh slowly starts to change his personality. Various events help transform this tyrant to a humble person. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In the beginning of the book, Gilgamesh appears to be selfish. GilgameshÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"arrogance has no bounds by day or nightÃ¢â¬ (62). Even though he is created by the Gods to be perfect, he misuses his powers and gifts for his own earthly pleasure. He has sexual intercourse with all the virgins of his city even if they are already engaged. Through all GilgameshÃ¢â¬â¢s imperfections and faults, he learns to change his amoral personality. The friendship of Enkidu helped to change his ways, for only Enkidu, who Ã¢â¬Å"is the strongest of wild creatures,Ã¢â¬ (66) is a match for Gilgamesh. Through this companionship with Enkidu, Gilgamesh starts to realize his incapabilities and need for his friend. When they fight Humbaba, they both give moral support to each other when the other is scared. Another event that changes GilgameshÃ¢â¬â¢s character is the death of Enkidu. When Enkidu dies, Gilgamesh goes through the suffering of losing a loved one. Gilgamesh experiences a pain, which no worldly pleasure can ease. By this experience Gilgamesh starts to understand his vulnerability toward death and pain. Losing his best friend causes Gilgamesh to be melancholic. At this point Gilgamesh is humbled by the fact that even he could not escape the wrath of death. Gilgamesh goes from this arrogant king to a lonely grieving person with fear of death in his heart.
Monday, January 13, 2020
American Sign Language Are deaf or hard of hearing people more susceptible to mental illnesses? The ability to communicate is at the heart of good mental health. Within any large group of people, one may expect to find a smaller group with mental health issues. However, in addition to conquering the difficulties associated with the inability to effectively communicate, individuals in the deaf community must also attempt to find mental health facilities that can accommodate their special circumstances. With all the challenges that face these individuals, it would come to no surprise to learn whether they are more prone to mental health problems than hearing individuals. First, any diagnoses of any mental health issue in the United States comes from one book, the DSM IV- the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Version IV. This bible of the mental health field is separated into five sections, though the first two are most prevalent in the studies to follow. The first section is Axis I, listing and describing the Clinical disorders including major mental disorders and learning disorders, such as depression, schizophrenia, ADHD, and bipolar disorder. Axis II lists Personality disorders such as paranoid personality disorder and dependent personality disorder, and mental retardation. In diagnosing children with sensory problems it is important to remember that early onset of significant hearing impairment can have a profound effect on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s development, with adverse consequences for mental health, both in childhood and adult life. 0% of deaf children born to hearing parents risk developmental delays in language and vocabulary, resulting in consequences in emotional, psychological, and educational growth (du Feu, 2003). In the past, these consequences manifested themselves in lower expectations for deaf children, and difficulties in teaching them led to the absence of correctly diagnosing mild learning disabilities, attention de ficit disorder, and even autism. The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors were instead attributed to their deafness. As a result, deaf children have an increased prevalence of mental health problems, 45-50% ersus an average of 25% for the general population. Interestingly enough, deaf children from deaf families do not show this increased level of mental health problems (du Feu, 2003). Because hearing loss so readily interferes with the acquisition of vocabulary, the mean English literacy of deaf high school graduates is at the 4. 5 grade level. (Reed, 2006) To compound this problem, a great many deaf people are not fluent in American Sign Language either, leaving the individual with a gross inability to communicate in general. Or, assuming the deaf person knows at least some ASL, written sentences may be choppy, incomplete, written in ASL syntax versus English grammar, and therefore may be misleading to the physician. Many mental help providers mistake normal language and communication issues for developmental delays, mental illness or mental retardation. However, misdiagnosing a non-fluent deaf person as psychotic is just as prevalent as mistaking psychosis as merely poor communication. The fear of being misdiagnosed due to language and cultural differences is one reason why deaf people may be reluctant to seek treatment for a mental health problem. Early studies found that schizophrenia was more common in deaf individuals than hearing people; however, the redirection of diagnoses from schizophrenia to adjustment disorders and organic problems occurred as the diagnostic process became more accurate and clearly defined (Black, 2006). In addition, deaf people are far less likely to be diagnosed with psychotic diagnoses if they are served in a deaf psychiatric program versus the mainstream population; understandably, those specific deaf psychiatric programs are not always readily available in the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s vicinity. Another reason deaf people may hesitate to seek treatment for mental disorders is the lack of providers who have knowledge of ASL and how it differs from English as well as the basics about deaf education and development (Pollard, 2010). Mental health providers must also learn deaf culture to differentiate what can be considered normal behavior in a deaf patient. For instance, a deaf person may stomp loudly on the floor to gain oneÃ¢â¬â¢s attention; behavior that would be considered aggressive by hearing tandards but accepted as quite normal in a deaf community. Deaf people are also very animated in their Ã¢â¬Å"talkÃ¢â¬ , relying on vivid display of expression and strong emotion to convey their feelings. These theatrics which are a normal part of ASL and deaf language are considered unnecessary in the general hearing public. Energetic signing may make people appear to be excitable or aggressive. Deaf peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s eye contact, use of personal space and way of touching others t o gain attention may all be misinterpreted as they can appear direct or intrusive. du Feu, 20063) Clinicians often labeled rapid signing as a symptom of psychotic behavior rather than the change of mood that was actually indicated by the patient. (Reed, 2006) Deaf patients were more often misunderstood than correctly diagnosed, leading to unnecessary and sometimes potentially harmful treatment and even detainment. Ã¢â¬Å"If I canÃ¢â¬â¢t trust my local mental health center to offer me someone whoÃ¢â¬â¢s competent to deal with me, why should I go? Ã¢â¬ (Pollard, 2010) More recent studies, though admittedly not Ã¢â¬Å"expertsÃ¢â¬ in completely understanding the deaf culture and language, have had more reliable results in the prevalence of mental disorders among the deaf. The frequency of mental illness among deaf people is at least as high as in the population at large. (Mueller, 2006) Findings also reveal the rate of Axis I disorders (depression, psychotic disorders) does not differ between hearing and deaf populations, including schizophrenia, but Axis II (personality disorders, mental retardation) and childhood behavior problems are three to six times more prevalent for deaf persons. The high rate of personality disorders may be related to attachment difficulties in some hearing families with deaf children. Deaf children and adolescents exhibit higher levels of behavioral and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders than the general population. (Haskins, 2000) Posttraumatic stress disorder is noted as being the most common diagnosis found in the deaf community. (Mueller, 2006) Deaf patients are also less likely to be diagnosed with psychotic or substance abuse disorder and more likely to be diagnosed with a mood, anxiety, or developmental disorder than members of the hearing population. However, providers still have limited knowledge of deafness or deaf culture which continues to seriously impact the ability to accurately assess and/or diagnose. (Mueller, 2006) While the hearing population can open a phone book and choose one of many, many providers to seek treatment for their problems, the deaf community has very little options. Aside from the difficult task of finding a signing counselor, one may allow an interpreter to accompany in the in the intensely personal session; that may also prove uncomfortable for the deaf patient and the interpreter, and it may skew the relationship with the clinician. In the past, therapists believed deaf people showed a low incidence of depression; in reality, it is more likely that the deaf just choose not to seek help. In addition to the challenges presented in childhood and adulthood for deaf patients, they must continue on their journey into retirement and beyond, frequently becoming more and more isolated as medical conditions start to accumulate with old age. Few residential or nursing homes or psychogeriatric services have experience with deaf people who sign. In conclusion, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve proven my theory that deaf people are more susceptible to some mental health issues due to the obstacles faced everyday with communicating with others. Correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment, however, are both difficult steps to the rehabilitation process. In research for this project, I learned of a 28 year old deaf woman who was born to hearing parents. The parents were advised early on not to learn to sign, and to discourage her from learning as well. Instead, they tried to have an instructor teach her the oral method, at least initially. Extremely unhappy, the girl developed behavior problems in childhood that increased in adolescence and carried over to early adulthood. She tried to socialize at the local deaf club but only knew a little ASL. She was barely literate, unable to hold a job or have a satisfying life. Upon eventual hospitalization, she was hostile and withdrawn. Frustrated at being unable to communicate with her, the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s parents asked the intake person to sign to the woman that they loved her. The woman signed the bitter response that she had wasted her entire childhood trying to learn to speak and her parents had not spent a single hour learning to sign. (du Feu, 2003) Ignorance isnÃ¢â¬â¢t always bliss. Bibliography Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, Margaret du Feu, 2003, volume 9, pp95-103 Deaf People: Mental Illness; Mental Illness in the Deaf Community: Increasing Awareness and Identifying Needs, Sandra Mueller, 2006, www. lifeprint. com Serving and Assessing Deaf Patients; Implications for Psychiatry, B. Haskins, Psychiatric Times, December 2000, volume XVII, Issue 12 Demographics, Psychiatric Diagnoses, and Other Characteristics of North American Deaf and Hard of Hearing Inpatients, Patricia Black, Riverview Psychiatric Center, jdsde. oxfordjournals. org Interview with Robert Pollard, Ph. D. , Professor of Psychiatry at University of Rochester and director of Deaf Wellness Center, 2010, www. healthbridges. info Mental Health Issues in the Deaf Community, Kimberly Reed, About. com guide 2006 bipolar. about. com/od/socialissues/a/000425_deaf. htm
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Racism and prejudice have been prevalent subjects in literature and history, especially as African Americans began publishing their own works regarding their personal experiences. Ralph EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Invisible Man, is considered to be a milestone that greatly contributed to a change in American literature. It transformed societyÃ¢â¬â¢s view on African American struggles and black identity. He tells of young, college-educated African American man struggling in society as he experiences racial discrimination, invisibility to others and himself, and the struggle to find an identity. The novel expresses the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s difficulty with searching for success and autonomy in a predominately white society. From the beginning, Ellison introduces theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s powerful diction prompts an emotional reaction to change readersÃ¢â¬â¢ opinions and allow them to draw a connection between themselves and struggling African Americans. He demonstr ates the desire of African Americans to obtain acceptance and respect from their society, however, with no avail. Despite the lack of recognition and inclusion, Ellison also demonstrates how invisibility is advantageous. The speaker lives in the forgotten basement of a whites-only apartment building and uses electricity from an unsuspecting company as a way to Ã¢â¬Å"fight against them without their realizing itÃ¢â¬ (5). With his limited abilities in society, he fights against white supremacy by realizing the power of his own invisibility. This belief is established after the narrator concludes his identity and role in society, however, the author presents this information in the introduction to foreshadow the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s development throughout his life. The novel goes on to return to the beginning of his life journey: college. In his early years, the narrator blindly follows the white leaders in his community in hopes to attend college and travel to the North to seek succe ss. He is tasked with escorting Mr. Norton around his college, an affluent founder who represents white superiority. After accidentally showing Mr. Norton an area that houses black sharecroppers, he takes him to a tavern where black veterans criticize the white supremacy. A former war veteran claimsShow MoreRelatedInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1366 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfighter left standing, amidst unbridled carnage. The titular narrator of Ralph Ellison s novel Invisible Man, is no stranger to those experiences. In the beginning, he is forced to fight several other black boxers for the amusement of many heckling, white spectators. Through the imaginative use of objects, symbols, allusions, and the actions, thoughts, and purposes of the spectators, pugilists and risquÃ © entertainment, Ellison seeks to express a powerful image of American race relations and womenRead MoreInvisible, Invisible Man, By Ralph Ellison1994 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesInvisible Race and Gender in Invisible Ma n, by Ralph Ellison In Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison, the unnamed narrator shows us through the use motifs and symbols how racism and sexism negatively affect the social class and individual identity of the oppressed people. Throughout the novel, the African American narrator tells us the story of his journey to find success in life which is sabotaged by the white-dominated society in which he lives in. Along his journey, we are also shown how the patriarchyRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesauthor of Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison, was born March 1st, 1914, and died April 16, 1994. He was born in Oklahoma City and named after Ralph Waldo Emerson, a famous journalist and poet. When Ellison was 3, his father died of a work-related accident, leaving his mother to care for him and his younger brother. As a young boy, he always wanted to major in music, and he went to Tuskegee University to become a composer and performer of music. The summer before his senior year in college, Ellison went toRead MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison Essay2164 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagestrying to rebel against the status quo. Protest literature emerged from the Harlem Renaissance in the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s to 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. Protest literature is used to address real socio-political issues and express objections against them. In his novel, The Invisible Man, Ralph Ellison exposes the racism in society by focusing on the culture, in regards to the expected assimilation of African Americans and how the time period largely influenced the mistreatment of the African American population. He also uses symbolsRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1277 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInvisible Man, by Ralph Ellison, is a story about a young African American man whose color renders him invisible. The theme of racism as a hurdle to individual identity is present throughout the story in a variety of examples. From the beginning of the novel the theme of identity is evident as the narrator states, Ã¢â¬ Å"All my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned someone tried to tell me what I wasÃ¢â¬ (Ellison, p. 1254). In the midst of living in a racist American society the speakersRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesInvisible Man by Ralph Ellison is a novel which embodies the universal theme of self-discovery, of the search to figure out who one truly is in life which we all are embarked upon. Throughout the text, the narrator is constantly wondering about who he really is, and evaluating the different identities which he assumes for himself. He progresses from being a hopeful student with a bright future to being just another poor black laborer in New Your City to being a fairly well off spokesperson for aRead MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBook Review: Invisible Man Invisible Man is an American Literature novel published by Ralph Ellison in 1952. The novel traces the experiences of a young college black man growing up in Harlem, New York. Attempting to succeed in a predominantly white society, the narrator encounters shocks and disillusionments from being expelled from college to hiding in an underground hole to protect himself from the people above. He lives a repressed life as an Ã¢â¬Å"Invisible ManÃ¢â¬ for he believes that society ignoresRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1032 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslike modern society some people leads, and others will follow. Subjects will conditionally generate their own ideas and realize these ideas rather than just be assigned tasks that question their beliefs. The author Ralph Ellison illustrates it best. EllisonÃ¢â¬â¢s realistic fiction Invisible Man perpetuates the manifestation of manipulation over the minorities in this society. As the narrator embraces every identity he has been given, h e starts to become more independent, and a leader in his community. Read MoreThe Invisible Man By Ralph Ellison3051 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesportrayed through the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s, the invisible man, journey through life. The problems with society are foreshadowed by the racism and the symbols of the color white presented in the paint plant. Ã¢â¬Å"The Invisible ManÃ¢â¬ by Ralph Ellison depicts the African Americans struggle to be viewed as an equal member of society through the narrators struggles through life to discover his individuality or place in society while the white man or the community conspires to Ã¢â¬Å"keep the black man downÃ¢â¬ . The story follows theRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesInvisible Man is a novel by Ralph Ellison, published in 1952. It addresses many of the social and intellectual issues facing African-Americans in the early twentieth century. This includes black nationalism, the relationship between black identity a nd Marxism, and the reformist racial policies of Booker T. Washington, as well as issues of individuality and personal identity. The grandson of slaves, Ralph Ellison was born in 1914 in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, and was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma. His